rationally necessary laws. During the scholastic period, the most comprehensive consideration of the virtues from a theological perspective was provided by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologiae and his Commentaries on the Nicomachean Ethics. John Stuart Mill (180673 Benthams successor as the leader of the utilitarians and the most influential British thinker of the 19th century, had some sympathy for the view that Benthams position was too narrow and crude. As has been noted, Hobbes took self-interested desire for pleasure as an unchangeable fact about human nature and proceeded to build a moral and political system to cope with. This occurred as a result of the Reformation, with its insistence on the right of individual conscience. His approach to art is similar: the wrong kind corrupts us when young and tempts even good adults to hold vicious attitudes. This introduces a crucial concept: appropriate actions ( kathkonta or actions that admit of a reasonable defense. We can stand, walk, and run; we can distance ourselves from appearances and assess whether things are as they seem; and we can engage in reciprocal relationships with others.
Essays about nicomachean ethics
Writing proposals for essays, Essays on karl marx capitalism,
In the ancient Greek and medieval periods, virtue ethics was the prevailing approach to ethical thinking. Protagoras is the apparent author of the celebrated epigram summing up this theme, Man is the measure of all things. It also follows that if God had willed humans to torture children, it would be good to. Or it is right to do x because that would be courageous. A view of the world so different from everyday conceptions as that of Spinoza cannot be made to seem remotely plausible when presented in summary form.
Ethics all aim to begin with approximate but uncontroversial starting points.
Nicomachean Ethics, aristotle says explicitly that one must begin with what is familiar to us, and the that or the fact that (NE.1095b2-13).
Online Library of Liberty.